Indonesia (and Bali)
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Indonesia is an archipelago comprising thousands of islands. With an estimated total population of over 252 million people, Indonesia is the world’s fourth-most-populous country. Indonesia’s republican form of government comprises an elected legislature and president. It encompasses 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. The nation’s capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world’s 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP (PPP).
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia’s history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, mass slaughter, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.
– (Indonesia) – 1,904,569 km2
– (Bali) – 5,780 sq km (2,232 sq miles)
– (Indonesia) – Has the 4th largest population at 256,000,000 after China, India and United States.
– (Bali) – 4,225,000 (estimate 2014).
Rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen. Rupiah notes are in denominations of Rp10000, 50000, 20000, 10000, 5000, 2000, and 1000. Coins are in denominations of Rp1000, 500, 200 and 100, 50 and 25.
100 IDR = 0.01 USD
$1 USD = 13,130.61 IDR
– (Indonesia) – Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Palau to the north, and with Australia to the south. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation’s largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.
At 1,919,440 square kilometres (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world’s 15th-largest country in terms of land area and world’s 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area. Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometre (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world, although Java, the world’s most populous island, has a population density of 940 people per square kilometre (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia’s highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometres (442 sq mi). The country’s largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island’s river settlements.
Indonesia’s location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes, including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra, and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.
Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780–3,175 millimetres (70.1–125.0 inches), and up to 6,100 millimetres (240 inches) in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas – particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua – receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26–30 °C (79–86 °F).
– (Bali) – The island of Bali lies 3.2 km (2 mi) east of Java. Bali and Java are separated by the Bali Strait. Bali’s central mountains include several peaks over 3,000 meters in elevation. The highest is Mount Agung (3,031 m), known as the “mother mountain” which is an active volcano. Bali’s volcanic nature has contributed to its exceptional fertility and its tall mountain ranges provide the high rainfall that supports the highly productive agriculture sector. South of the mountains is a broad, steadily descending area where most of Bali’s large rice crop is grown. The northern side of the mountains slopes more steeply to the sea and is the main coffee producing area of the island, along with rice, vegetables and cattle. The longest river, Ayung River, flows approximately 75 km. The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand. The largest city is the provincial capital, Denpasar, near the southern coast.
Head of State and Government – Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. Following theresignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The president of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice-president.The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.
Language – Bahasa Bali & Bahasa Indonesia. Most Balinese are bilingual if not trilingual (Indonesian, Balinese, English). Although every Balinese speaks the language of his mother island, Indonesian is the most common language – particularly in the tourism sector.
Religion – More than 87 per cent of people are Muslim, with small communities of Christians, Roman Catholics and Hindus (estimate 2010). Roughly 83% of the Balinese population follows the Hindu religion.
Dry season: Average Low 73.F – Average High 90.F
Rainy season: Average Low 73.F – Average High 91.F
During the dry season which is between the months of April and September, Bali receives the most visitors and temperatures are if at all only a tiny bit higher than during the other months. During Bali’s dry season one can still expect occasional rainfall. During rainy season, which is typically from October to March, Bali becomes quieter. Bali’s central mountain area is typically cooler and also rainier than the lower coastal areas. Especially at night temperatures can drop to 15 degrees in certain areas higher up near the volcanoes. The southern peninsula Bukith has less rain than the rest of south of Bali (Kuta, Legian, Seminyak, Denpasar).
Education – Education in Indonesia is compulsory for twelve years. Parents can choose between state-run, non sectarian public schools supervised by the Department of National Education (Depdiknas) or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs. The enrolment rate is 94% for primary education (2011), 75% for secondary education, and 27% for tertiary education. The literacy rate is 93% (2011).
Sports – Sports in Indonesia are generally male-oriented and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling. The most popular sports are badminton and football. Indonesian players have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men’s badminton) thirteen of the twenty-six times that it has been held since 1949, as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia is the country’s premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art.